Veneto region Saint Mark Republic

by | Aug 16, 2015

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Veneto region and its history

Veneto region, an ancient culture and its territory in Italy. It extended from the Po delta to the upper valley of the Piave river. Hence here, from the twelfth to the first century BC grow the development foundations. Therefore along the Po river, they were the most important European trade centers of that time. Most noteworthy, the amber was arriving in this area from the Baltic. For sure this product was a precious and magic resin in high demand. In addition, we find the refined metallurgic production, the bone works, and the glass. And there was also the exchange of exotic goods like ivory and ostrich eggs.

Most of all the plain is fertile thanks to several rivers. However, the maximum expansion of the Veneti is between the sixth and the beginning of the fourth century BC.

Trade and other cultures
Bronze situla left by the veneti masters of art, a figurative world of social and political life.

Bronze situla

How much more valuable left by the Veneti is the situla. However, the masters of this art created on a sheet of bronze a figurative world that still surprises. And it’s the most explicit narrative of the ideals. Hence like the collective imagination. With also the social and political life.

Therefore the vast plain remains the privileged place for hunting and timber. As well as the horse farm which made famous the Veneti and the Veneto region in all the Mediterranean. And in the mountain areas, we have the interaction between the Celts and the Romans. For sure it leads to progressive social and cultural transformations. Hence the Piave valley was the border of the Veneti.

Most of all, the opening of these people towards other cultures was really great. The reason? Because they were able to assimilate the contributions and the influences. And also they were smart to acquire new knowledge. For sure the geographic site favors the Veneti known as brilliants on the trade. Certainly, it is due to an area that overlooks the lagoon and projects in the Adriatic sea. And in all the territory there was a complex system of waterways. On that time that was the natural way of penetration to the transalpine regions.

The Roman Empire

But on the threshold of the second century BC, the north-eastern Italy was in a deep change. It is the time when Rome projects itself to the conquest of the peninsula. Therefore the Empire begins to enter the Veneto region in its own sphere of action. And at the end, it’s an achievement that does not resort to coercive instruments. Hence, the Romans made a transformation of the politic and the territory of the region. And noteworthy, in just a little over a century.

Of course, the main project of this process is to facilitate the armies movement. Therefore the Romans built roads where, with men, also move the goods and, above all, ideas. Anyhow around the middle of the second century BC, important roads crossed the Veneto.  And as a result, they realize the Via Postumia and the Via Annia. Hence where the first was the road from Genoa to Aquileia and the second was from Bologna to Aquileia.

The Venetians and the Roman Empire

The Venetians had been open for centuries to intense commercial and cultural relations with the Celtic world. But they defend their political autonomy allied themselves with Rome. In Roman times the lagoons had a larger extension than the present ones. And all the towns on the plain or on the edge of the lagoon played a port function.

The roads network

The Romans founded Aquileia in 181 BC. Hence the eastern Venetian cities, with Aquileia, became the bases of the Roman operations in the upper Adriatic. As a result, they made the first road network to reinforce the military device. In 148 BC they traced the Via Postumia from Aquileia to Genoa. From East to West, a road that passed also through Verona and Cremona. Worth a note, the Via Postumia joined to Rimini, in Emilia Romagna region, through Adria thanks to the Via Popilia (132 BC). Therefore, Via Annia was the main road of the Veneto, which linked Adria to Aquileia through Padua and Altino.

The centuriation

In 89 BC, they started the land surveying settlement, known as the centuriation, in the country. In a few decades the Veneto cities, which became the capital of municipium, changed their appearance. For sure, with the construction of brick walls and the renovation of the urban layout. In the Augustan Age, Padua, a commercial and woolen fabric production district, surpassed all the other cities. Its territory included the centers of Abano and Montegrotto. Already important and well equipped spa centers.

The three centuries from 150 BC to 150 AD are a period of peaceful and prosperous provincial life. But in the last decades of the second century AD, a new cycle begins. That will end with the disintegration of the late antique world.

After the decline of the Roman Empire

Throughout the Veneto, in the 6th and 7th centuries, the cultivated areas regressed, woods and swamps expanded. Uncultivated zones grow between an agriculture area and the other. All cities reduced their built and inhabited space. The Roman roads became impassable, and the little trade moved on the dense network of waterways. Within the space of a few generations, the plain turns into a progressive marsh. As a result, this situation made impenetrable extensive coastal areas and ancient lagoons.

At the dawn of the Middle Ages

Furthermore, there is the rising of the riverbed that caused devastating floods. A wide area of sparsely populated lands, rich in water and woodland, divided the Lombard side from the lagoon of the Veneto region. After the conquest of Charlemagne, They reorganized the region into countries and frontier territories. But the feudal system had to coexist with elements of the Roman legal tradition. In conclusion, we are at the doors of a new era: the Middle Ages.

From the land to the lagoon

On the other hand, the development of the subregion of the lagoon was totally peculiar. First of all, at the end of the sixth century, we see the migration of local people from the land to the lagoon. In fact, the settlement of the Lombards pushed the populations of the Venetian cities. Most of them towards the edges and the emerging lands of the lagoon. Furthermore, In the 7th century, a Byzantine theme entered in the community, with local magistrates, dependent on the Ravenna exarch.

The birth of Venice

At the beginning of the 9th century, the seat of the Doge was in a group of islets. That together formed the “civitas Revoalti”, an area known as Rialto. Important note, the Doge is no longer a Byzantine officer. But the leader of the lagoon aristocracy. As well as the name “Venetia” will be transferred from the Augustan region to the lagoon town. Precisely, in the twelfth century. As a result, on these small lands emerged in the IX and X centuries, we have the first nucleus of the town. In fact, these small lands will join together step by step. In order to form a single set that a dense network of canals will across.

The Doge

Worth a note, the name Doge derives from the Latin dux and means leader. At the foundation of the town, they elected Agnello Partecipazio as first Doge. Thus the Venetian Republic known as La Serenissima started and will last 1000 years. Furthermore, in 828 they brought the relics of St Mark the Evangelist, from Alexandria, the saint that became the protector of the town.

The strategic position

Hence, from the 9th to the 13th century Venice became very rich. Due to its position between East to West. In fact, with its maritime and commercial power, it conquered important markets in all the Adriatic and eastern Mediterranean seas. On the 15th century, the Venetian power was at its peak. In fact, they held the kingdoms of Morea, Cyprus, and Candia (Crete). As well as in the mainland, they captured all the main cities of the Veneto region with Brescia and Bergamo. In conclusion, the Adriatic became the Venetian Sea from Corfù to the Po.

The decline of the Republic

However, it seems that the decline of the Republic of Venice started in 1453. As a result, it was the year that the Turks conquered Constantinople.  As well as with the discovery of America. But the most important event was the War of the League of Cambrai at the beginning of the 16th century.

The government

The government of the Republic, from its earliest days, organized itself to avoid the rise to power of any one man. First of all, several councils supervised the role of the Doge. As the Grand Council drew up the laws. Hence the Senate was responsible for foreign affairs. As well as military and economic matters. Furthermore, the responsible for the security was the Council of Ten. That kept also a network of secret police and informers. Which created an atmosphere of mistrust but ensured control of all aspects of the city life.

The border regions of the Veneto

As we can see the Veneto region is located in the Northeast area of Italy and it borders with four Italian regions. And these are Friuli-Venezia-Giulia, Trentino-Alto-Adige, Lombardy, and Emilia Romagna.

On our days, the Veneto region is divided into 7 provinces. The main towns of each province are:

Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Rovigo, Treviso, Belluno.

…And now let’s discover this region…

Some suggestions of our sightseeing tours, city tours, day trips, outdoor activities

Villa La Rotonda palladian villa Vicenza to visit during a guided tour

Andrea Palladio

Here you find more details and some itineraries of his works. Hence the villas and palaces. Also, most of them are in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Cristallo Dolomite mountains Unesco world heritage ski resort

The Dolomites

Skiing, climbing, hiking, cross country skiing … Discover these mountains all year round. Resorts known as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Middle Ages walled towns Lords and Signories day excursion

Medieval towns

Middle Ages walled towns, monasteries, castles and convents used until our days. Hence a day tour to discover this period of our history.

Venice cannaregio district culture leisure guided walking tour

Culture and Leisure

The day excursions are with the different themes combining each them. Hence for sure they offer a wide range of argument that can satisfy all your needs.

Wine food tasting Veneto region day excursion with professional driver

Wine food tasting

This region is well-known for important wines like prosecco, Amarone, Soave… Asiago cheese, cold cuts, fish… in conclusion let’s make a toast!

Olympic theatre Vicenza guided walking tour Palladio work Veneto region

Art cities

As a result you will find the 7 province capitals of this region rich in art and beauty. Hence treasures of our history, they preserve important Italian masterpieces.

Brenta river rafting outdoor activities Veneto guided day excursion

Outdoor activities

Trekking, speleology or rafting. Also nordic walking, as well as canyoning and mountain bike. A great solution for all ages to discover the region, with professional guide.

Handicraft artisan care Veneto day excursion with professional driver

Handicraft

A wide range of unique products. Made with love and passion that gone from generation to generation. These are masterpieces that continue to maintain their own identity.

Bicycles venetian lagoon cycle routes guided day excursion

Cycle routes

Explore the Veneto with the bicycle. A great idea and a different travel opportunity. Because pedaling along bike paths, trails, and lanes, means to discover masterpieces.

… Above just a little taste. Do you have a particular request? …

SIGHTSEEING IN ITALY
Veneto region

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“There is no world without Verona walls,
But purgatory, torture, hell itself,
Hence banished is banish’d from the world,
And world’s exile is death…..”

“Romeo and Juliet”, Act 3, Scene 3
– William Shakespeare –
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Veneto region the flag

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